I started my career as a developer in the mid-90s, around the DC area, as companies were just starting to realize the benefits the web could offer. Back then, as you would around that part of country, I started off by doing a lot of government contracts for different agencies. As many companies during that time,back then (and especially given government role segmentation) it was a widely accepted practice that developers could never access production. We sat quietly in the corner, wrote the code, and threw it over the wall to operations to deploy and manage. We were not allowed to not touch the production database or any of production services. Which made the feedback loop … interesting. With time, some companies became a bit more liberal (and I moved away from public sector) and we, as developers, were granted limited permission to deploy and troubleshoot issues in production.